Spectroscopy and Chemometrics News Weekly #31, 2018

Chemometrics

How to Configure the Number of Layers and Nodes in NeuralNetworks: BigData DataScience AI MachineLearning DeepLearning Algorithms by Source for graphic: | abdsc (2018.08.02) LINK

“Visible-Near-Infrared Spectroscopy can predict Mass Transport of Dissolved Chemicals through Intact Soil.” (2018.08.02) LINK

“Classification and compositional characterization of different varieties of cocoa beans by near infrared spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analyses.” (2018.08.02) LINK

“Classification of Chicken Parts Using a Portable Near-Infrared (NIR) Spectrophotometer and Machine Learning.” (2018.08.02) LINK

“Rapid Prediction of Low (<1%) trans Fat Content in Edible Oils and Fast Food Lipid Extracts by Infrared Spectroscopy and Partial Least Squares Regression” (2018.07.31) LINK

“Evaluating the performance of a consumer scale SCiO™ molecular sensor to predict quality of horticultural products” (2018.07.30) LINK

“Estimation of Total Phenols, Flavanols and Extractability of Phenolic Compounds in Grape Seeds Using Vibrational Spectroscopy and Chemometric Tools” (2018.07.26) LINK



Near Infrared

“FT-NIR, MicroNIR and LED-MicroNIR for Detection of Adulteration in Palm Oil via PLS and LDA” FTNIR NIRS (2018.08.03) LINK

“Long-Length Fiber Optic Near-Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy Probes for On-Line Quality Control of Processed Land Animal Proteins” (2018.08.03) LINK

“Near-infrared spectroscopy for rapid and simultaneous determination of five main active components in rhubarb of different geographical origins and processing.” (2018.08.02) LINK

“Marktech Optoelectronics Introduces Silicon Avalanche Photodiodes for Low-Level Light and Short Pulse Detection” UV NIR NIRS SWIR (2018.08.02) LINK

“Innovative Technology Promises Fast, Cost-Efficient Age Data for Fisheries Management” FTNIR (2018.07.31) LINK

“Rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of methamphetamine, ketamine, heroin, and cocaine by near-infrared spectroscopy.” (2018.07.31) LINK

We (led by ) have been independently assessing thew value of consumer scale NIR devices for horticultural quality assessment. Here is our published work assessing (2018.07.30) LINK



Infrared

“Fault Detection Based on Near-Infrared Spectra for the Oil Desalting Process” (2018.08.05) LINK

“Common Infrared Optical Materials and Coatings: A Guide to Properties, Performance and Applications” (2018.08.04) LINK



Raman

SpectraBase – FREE, fast text access to hundreds of thousands of NMR, IR, Raman, UV-Vis, and mass spectra! spectroscopy (2018.08.02) LINK



Agriculture

“Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Soybean Canopies Using Multisource Imaging for Phenotyping Analysis” (2018.08.03) LINK

“Smartphone Spectroscopy Promises a Data-Rich Future – An upsurge of portable, consumer-facing devices at the intersection of smartphone computing and spectroscopy is now leveraging integration. ” (2018.08.02) LINK

Innovative Technology Promises Fast, Cost-Efficient Age Data for Fisheries Management (2018.07.31) LINK

“Smartphone-Based Food Diagnostic Technologies: A Review” (2018.07.30) LINK



Petro

“Detection, Purity Analysis, and Quality Assurance of Adulterated Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea) Oils” (2018.08.02) LINK



Pharma

“Potential of near infrared spectroscopy and pattern recognition for rapid discrimination and quantification of Gleditsia sinensis thorn powder with adulterants.” (2018.08.02) LINK



Medicinal

A micro-spectrometer fit for a smartphone: Could the power to measure things like CO2, food freshness, and blood sugar levels soon be in the palm of our hands? |rld/magazine/article/323/micro-spectrometer-opens-door-to-a-wealth-of-new-smartphone-functions?utm_source=twitter.com/CalibModel health safety medicine spectroscopy (2018.02.25) LINK

“Near-infrared spectroscopy detects age-related differences in skeletal muscle oxidative function: promising implications for geroscience.” (2018.02.08) LINK




Other

69% of decision makers say industrial analytics will be crucial for business in 2020. | IoT IIoT MT LINK





CalibrationModel.com

Free Chemometric NIR Predictor Software! Simple plug&play calibrations, drag&drop spectral data, for any NIRS sensor device. Easy to use software for off-line and real-time prediction without limits. offline realtime (2018.08.04) LINK

Automated NIRS spectroscopy chemometrics method development with MachineLearning for spectrometer Spectral IoT sensor SmartSensor SmartSensors (2018.07.25) LINK

Automatic NIR Spectroscopy Calibration-Development as a Service. Applicable with free NIR-Predictor software or via OEM API. | NIRSpectroscopy NearInfrared NIRanalysis spectrometers DataAnalytics Regression Spectral Sensors QualityControl Lab (2018.07.26) LINK

Increase Your Profit with optimized NIRS Accuracy with Calibration as a Service (CaaS) and the new free NIR-Predictor software. | foodsafety Feed Lab QC QA testing (2018.08.03) LINK

New : FREE NIR Predictor Software, drag&drop spectral data to plug&play calibrations, for any NIRS Analysis sensor type. | Chemometrics Prediction (2018.07.24) LINK

Spectroscopy and Chemometrics News (KW 11-30 2018) | NIRS Spectroscopy Chemometrics analysis Spectral Spectrometer Sensors (2018.07.25) LINK

Spektroskopie und Chemometrie Neuigkeiten (KW 11-30 2018) | NIRS Spektroskopie Chemometrie analyse Spektral Spektrometer Sensor (2018.07.25) LINK

Spettroscopia e Chemiometria Weekly (KW 11-30 2018) | NIRS Spettroscopia Chemiometria analisi Spettrale Spettrometro Sensore (2018.07.25) LINK

光谱学和化学计量学新闻(KW#11-#30 2018) | 近红外光谱化学计量学分析光谱仪传感器 (2018.07.26) LINK

分光法とケモメトリックスニュース(KW#11-#30 2018) | 赤外分光法・ケモメトリックスの分光センサーの近く (2018.07.26) LINK




Spectroscopy and Chemometrics News Weekly 2018: #44-52, 2017

Chemometrics

Understanding the molecular interaction in solutions by chemometric resolution of near−infrared spectra… (2017.12.20) LINK

Application of near-infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics for online monitoring of Moluodan… (2017.12.05) LINK

“Assessment of mefenamic acid polymorphs in commercial tablets using chemometric coupled to MIR and NIR… (2017.12.05) LINK

“Multiproduct, Multicomponent and Multivariate Calibration: a Case Study by Using Vis-NIR Spectroscopy” (2017.12.05) LINK

Traceability of Active Compounds of Essential Oils in Antimicrobial Food Packaging Using a Chemometric Method by AT… (2017.11.21) LINK

Visualization of hydrolysis in polylactide using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging and chemometrics (2017.11.06) LINK

Clever chemometrics catches funny honey cheats (2017.11.06) LINK

Quantification of soil Properties with Hyperspectral Data. : Selecting Spectral Variables (2017.11.06) LINK

Linear Multi-Task Learning for Predicting Soil Properties Using Field spectroscopy (2017.11.06) LINK


Near Infrared

“Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy NIRS to predict fecal indigestible neutral detergent fiber for dairy cows” |(17)31149-9/fulltext (2017.12.30) LINK

New post: NIR imaging helps improve seed QC (2017.12.30) LINK

“Robust new NIRS coupled with multivariate methods for the detection and quantification of tallow… (2017.12.24) LINK

Global Process Spectroscopy Market (2017-2023): Growing Demand For NIR Spectroscopy – Research and Markets (2017.12.11) LINK

The combination of NIR spectroscopy and HPLC chromatography for differentiating lotus seed cultivars and… (2017.11.29) LINK

Fast, Low-Cost and Non-Destructive Physico-Chemical Analysis of Virgin Olive Oils Using NIR Reflectance Spectroscopy (2017.11.17) LINK

Near infrared signature of opal and chalcedony as a proxy for their structure and formation conditions /papers/ejm/detail/29/87623/Near_infrared_signature_of_opal_and_chalcedony_as_a_proxy_for_their_structure_and_formation_conditions (2017.11.06) LINK

NIR technology enables precise sorting in fractions of a second (2017.11.06) LINK

“Theoretical and technical advancements of near-infrared spectroscopy and its operational impact in industry” (2017.10.25) LINK

Quantum mechanically calculated NIR spectra of fatty acids | NIRS fattyacids (2017.10.25) LINK


Hyperspectral

“Discrimination of CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutants of rice seeds using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging.”… (2017.11.23) LINK

Protein content prediction in single wheat kernels using hyperspectral imaging. | HSI… (2017.11.17) LINK

NIR hyperspectral imaging with multivariate analysis for measurement of oil and protein contents in peanut varieties (2017.11.06) LINK


Spectral Imaging

“Color and Spectral Imaging with Smartphones – current and future developments” (2017.12.20) LINK




Spectroscopy

“Global $6.4 Billion Molecular Spectroscopy Market to 2024” – BusinessWire | Spectroscopy (2017.11.21) LINK


Equipment

Specim launched SPECIM IQ, the world’s first mobile hyperspectral camera that allows you to analyze material samples an… (2017.12.05) LINK!

Wireless Handheld Spectrometer Transmits Data to Smartphone (2017.11.09) LINK

“Infrared spectrometers: NIR and MIR compared” | Infrared spectrometer (2017.10.19) LINK


Environment

Another infographic to illustrate an answer to the questions: What is DataScience in the context of BigData DataMining… (2017.12.30) LINK!

Vis-NIR Spectroscopy and PLS Regression with Waveband Selection for Estimating the Total C and N of Paddy Soils in.. (2017.11.06) LINK


Agriculture

Near-Infrared Spectrum Detection of Wheat Gluten Protein Content Based on a Combined Filtering Method. (2017.12.30) LINK

Non-destructive technique for determining the viability of soybean (Glycine max) seeds using FT-NIR spectroscopy. (2017.10.20) LINK

Mid- and near-IR spectroscopy diagnostic tools developed under EU project (2017.10.19) LINK

“Supercontinuum Lasers Lead to Better Bread and Beer” | barley grains beta-glucan seed sorting (2017.10.19) LINK

Fluorescence and Reflectance Sensor Comparison in Winter Wheat (2017.10.03) LINK


Food & Feed

“Food Safety for the 21st Century” | FSMA spectroscopy blockchain (2017.10.19) LINK


Other

Das KI-basierte Unternehmen wird Realität – Schnelle Materialanalyse auf dem Smartphone (2017.11.21) LINK

Spectroscopy and Chemometrics News Weekly #38-#42, 2017


Near Infrared

UV-VIS, NIR, FTIR, Raman, fluorescence, XRF brands with recognized file formats by optical spectroscopy software http… LINK!


“Shrinking FT-NIR Spectrometers Empower Consumers, Businesses” | NIRS sensors LINK


Feasibility of near infrared transmittance spectroscopy to predict cheese ripeness |(17)30860-3/abstract NIRS predict cheese ripeness LINK


John Deere HarvestLab 3000 uses NIR Spectroscopy to evaluate constituent characteristics such as protein, NDF, ADF LINK


Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Limestone Ore for CaO Estimation under Dry and Wet Conditions LINK



Equipment

“Infrared spectrometers: NIR and MIR compared” | Infrared spectrometer LINK


“Shrinking FT-NIR Spectrometers Empower Consumers, Businesses” NeoSpectraMicro spectral sensors technology https://… LINK!


How to Design a Spectrometer | grating spectrograph Spectrometer engineering optical absorption LINK

Equipment

Real-Time Food Authentication Using a Miniature Mass Spectrometer LINK



Agriculture

Non-destructive technique for determining the viability of soybean (Glycine max) seeds using FT-NIR spectroscopy. LINK


Mid- and near-IR spectroscopy diagnostic tools developed under EU project LINK


“Supercontinuum Lasers Lead to Better Bread and Beer” | barley grains beta-glucan seed sorting LINK


Fluorescence and Reflectance Sensor Comparison in Winter Wheat LINK



Food & Feed

“Food Safety for the 21st Century” | FSMA spectroscopy blockchain LINK



Laboratory

Development and Bioanalytical Applications of a White Light Reflectance Spectroscopy Label-Free Sensing Platform LINK



Environment

Spectroscopy Could Simplify Soil Texture Analysis LINK


Effects of Moisture & Particle Size on Quantitative Determination of TOC in Soils Using NIR Spectroscopy LINK


A global spectral library to characterize the world’s soil LINK



Chemometrics

Feasibility of near infrared transmittance spectroscopy to predict cheese ripeness. LINK


Chemometric compositional analysis of phenolic compounds in fermenting samples & wines using infrared spectroscopy. LINK


… Chemometric tactics for spectral data compression combined with likelihood ratio approach. LINK


Data Augmentation of Spectral Data for Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) Based Deep Chemometrics | DeepLearning LINK


First revolutionary NIR seed calibration robot makes predicting quality seeds easy, debuts at seedme… LINK!


Chemometrics: Data Driven Extraction for Science, 2nd Edition LINK


Near Infrared Spectrometry for Rapid Non-Invasive Modelling of Aspergillus-Contaminated Maturing Kernels of Maize LINK




Selecting the number of factors in principal component analysis by permutation testing—Numerical & practical aspects LINK


“Calibration Transfer Chemometrics, Part I: Review of the Subject” | NIRS Spectroscopy Chemometrics LINK


Extraction optimization and pixel-based chemometric analysis of semi-volatile organic compounds in groundwater LINK



CalibrationModel.com

Spectroscopy and Chemometrics News Weekly 31-37, 2017 | Molecular Spectroscopy NIRS Chemometrics Sensors LINK


Spektroskopie und Chemometrie Neuigkeiten Wöchentlich 31-37, 2017 | NIRS Spektroskopie Chemometrie Sensor LINK


Spettroscopia e Chemiometria Weekly News 31-37, 2017 | NIRS Spettroscopia Chemiometria sensore LINK




Spectroscopy and Chemometrics News Weekly #31-37, 2017

Near Infrared

Rancidity Estimation of Perilla Seed Oil by Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy & Multivariate Analysis Techniques LINK

Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy to Analyze Meat in Live Animals LINK

“Near-infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) Equipment Market Analysis with Inputs from Industry Experts 2017 to 2022” LINK

NIRS Process Monitoring Methodology for Pharmaceutical Continuous Manufacturing using a Offline Calibration Approach LINK

Near infrared system coupled chemometric algorithms for enumeration of total fungi count in cocoa beans | NIRS LINK

Prediction of Cortisol & Progesterone Concentrations in Cow Hair Using Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy NIRS LINK

“Near-infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) Equipment Market is Expected to Grow 12 % CAGR till 2022” LINK

Determination of Spatially Resolved Tablet Density and Hardness Using Near-Infrared Chemical Imaging (NIR-CI) LINK

Prediction of Lignin Content in Different Parts of Sugarcane Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR), … LINK



Chemometrics

Evolution of Machine Learning – Infographics MachineLearning AI LINK

Quantification of the contents in biojet fuel blends using near infrared spectroscopy and multivariate calibration LINK

“Calibration model to predict nitrogen content in single seeds of cowpea using NIRS” LINK

Classification of Ciprofloxacin Tablets Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometric Modeling | NIRS LINK



Equipment

Updated : NIR-Spectrometer vendor overview list NIRS Spectrometer Spectroscopy Sensors Spektrometer LINK

PerkinElmer Launches Spectrum Two™ N FT-NIR System | NIRS FTNIR spectrometer LINK



Hyperspectral

Discrimination of Transgenic Maize Kernel Using NIR Hyperspectral Imaging and Multivariate DataAnalysis | HSI LINK



Process Control

Development of NIR-Spectroscopy-based Process Monitoring Methodology for Pharmaceutical Continuous Manufacturing … LINK




Food & Feed

Application of Visible/Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in the Prediction of Azodicarbonamide in Wheat Flour LINK



Agriculture

Nondestructive Technique for Determining the Viability of Soybean (Glycine max) Seeds Using FT-NIR Spectroscopy. LINK



Research

Android Tricorder: Google übernimmt Startup, das Körperwerte mit dem Smartphone messen kann LINK



Laboratory

Some of our favorite postcards from our journeys at Saturn, now available in a free, downloadable e-book: LINK!



Other

Spectroscopic ‘science camera’ system for smartphones LINK
Using Deep Neural Networks to Automate Large Scale Statistical Analysis for Big Data Applications. LINK



Facts

Echo Geoff’s sentiment no tool is eternal, even backprop or deeplearning. V. important to continue basic research. https://t.… LINK!



Spectroscopy and Chemometrics News Weekly #43, 2016

Chemometrics

SWIR region contains chemical spectral info. Chemometrics differentiate 4 sugars. Realtime spectral processing LINK


Near Infrared

Using advanced NIR sensors, our hygenic TS line measures fluid absorption for FoodandBeverage applications: LINK!

“NIR penetrates much further into samples and, unlike Raman, is unaffected by fluorescence.” | Env… LINK

Qualitätskontrolle während der Extrusion – Folie Fremdpolymeren NIRAnalyse Inspektionssystem LINK

Pre-grazing significantly boosts first cut silage quality | NIRanalycer NIRmachine via LINK


Infrared

Selective Weighted Least Squares Method for Fourier Transform Infrared Quantitative Analysis LINK

Multivariate Analysis of Hemicelluloses in Bleached Kraft Pulp Using Infrared Spectroscopy LINK


Hyperspectral

Combining hyperspectral and lidar is a great approach to identify & monitor invasive plants species… LINK


Environment

DETECTION OF CANNABIS PLANTS BY HYPER-SPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING MEANS LINK


Pharma

US FDA Purchases Transmission Raman for Quantitative Analysis of Tablets & Capsules – European Pharmaceutical Review LINK


Laboratory

“Washington State University (WSU) portable smartphone spectrometer laboratory detects cancer” LINK

Spectroscopy Outside the Lab: LINK


CalibrationModel.com

Spectroscopy and Chemometrics News 42, 2016 | NIRS Spectroscopic Chemometric Software LINK

Spektroskopie und Chemometrie Neuigkeiten Wöchentlich 42, 2016 | NIRS Spektroskopie Chemometrie Kalibration LINK

Spettroscopia e Chemiometria Weekly News 42, 2016 | NIRS Spettroscopia Chemiometria news LINK


Spectroscopy and Chemometrics News Weekly #29, 2016

Chemometrics

Calibration Methods for Predicting Mechanical Properties of Polypropylene Pellets Using Raman Spectroscopy LINK


Raman

25th International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy (ICORS) 14. – 19.08.2016 Fortaleza Brazil LINK


Other

The birth of quantum holography: Making holograms of single light particles! LINK

Smallest hard disk to date writes information atom by atom LINK



Chemometrics and Spectroscopy News Weekly #25, 2014

Chemometrics and Spectroscopy News Weekly #25, 2014

Get the Chemometrics and Spectroscopy News in real time on Twitter @ CalibModel and follow us.

Chemometrie und Spektroskopie Neuigkeiten Wöchentlich #25, 2014

Holen Sie sich die Chemometrie und Spektroskopie Nachrichten in Echtzeit auf Twitter @ CalibModel

Chemometrics

Comparative study between univariate spectrophotometry & multivariate calibration as analyt. LINK Pre-processing in vibrational spectroscopy – when, why and how |!divAbstract LINK A chemometrics toolbox based on projections and latent variables LINK Projection methods for separation of predicting & non‐predicting information in PLSR & PCR LINK Cross-study validation for the assessment of prediction algorithms LINK

Near Infrared

How to Get the Most Out of Drone Images | NDVI equation NIR-VIS LINK NIR spectroscopy could find fake Chinese liquor | beverages counterfeit adulterated LINK Collaboration produces hyperspectral multi-sensor aircraft | VNIR NIR SWIR LINK

Terahertz

New quantum mechanism to trigger the emission of tunable light at terahertz frequencies LINK

Hyperspectral

An overview on principle, techniques and application of hyperspectral imaging … | HSI LINK

Environment

Satellite Images May Soon Show Objects Smaller Than 50cm In Size LINK

CalibrationModel.com

Development & Optimization of analytical methods for NIR spectroscopy to accurate prediction LINK WHITEPAPER: A Novel knowledge-based Chemometric Software for quantitative NIR Calibration Modeling | NIRS LINK How to Develop Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Calibrations today? | Application Process Chemist NIR Engineer Lab NIR LINK Quantitative Analytical NIR Method Development for Quality Control Laboratory & Analytical Laboratories | pauto QAQC LINK Increase Your Profit with optimized NIRS Accuracy Food Feed FoodSafety ag Lab QC QA PAT QbD Pharma LINK Improve Accuracy of fast Nondestructive NIR Measurements by Optimal Calibration | Food Feed FoodSafety ag Lab LINK How to improve your NearInfrared analysis – Get the White-Paper | NIRS nearIR PAT QbD pauto control measure LINK Lange Wartezeiten bei der Optimierung von NIR Applikationen? So geht es besser | pharma food feed LINK Service für Professionelle Entwicklung von NIR-Kalibrierungen | NIRS Near-Infrared-Spectroscopy LINK

Summary of the NIR Chemometric survey polls

Summary of the NIR Chemometric survey polls (as of end of Sept. 2013)

The interesting finding is that most of the answers fit the following pattern. The most companies that use NIR have one NIR Instrument and only one employee that is able to develop NIR calibrations. For that the most common off-the-shelf chemometrics program is used and spent 2 hours or over a month and therefore gets no calibration training about the complex topics like Chemometrics and NIR Spectroscopy or only once (introduction). The calibration maintenance ranges from never to 3 times a year. Interestingly, there was no one who uses portable NIR instruments. We continue our surveys, for the discovery of new trends. Conclusion Seeing this picture, we think that there is huge potential to improve the calibrations. Advanced knowledge can help individuals to build the calibrations with best practices and improve their models accuracy and reliability. Once the decision and investment in NIR technology is done, you should get the best out of your data, because this extra NIR performance can be given by calibration optimization. We offer this as an easy to use and independent service.

NIR Spectroscopy and Chemometric surveys, inquiry, polls and assessments (Part 3)


10. NIR in Supply Chain
Where in the supply chain are your NIR instruments located?

11. NIR Usage
How long has your company used NIR spectroscopy?

12. NIR instruments
How many NIR instrument units are in use in your company?

13. NIR Mobile
How much is the mobile hand-held percentage of total NIR devices in your company?

14. Calibration Source
How do you get the NIR Calibrations developed?

15. Calibration Training
How often do the operators get training about NIR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics?

16. NIR PreCalibrations
How many NIR Pre-Calibration, NIR factory calibrations or NIR starter calibrations have you in use?

17. Calibration Spectra
How many Spectra does your quantitative Calibration have in average?

Please vote and see the assessments below.

Part 1, Part 2
[yop_poll id=”11″] [yop_poll id=”12″]
[yop_poll id=”13″] [yop_poll id=”14″]
[yop_poll id=”18″] [yop_poll id=”16″]
[yop_poll id=”17″] [yop_poll id=”15″]

Part 1, Part 2

Potential usage of NIR analysis and its industry fields of applications

What is typically measured by NIR Analysis? NIR Calibrations are used for the determination of the content of moisture, fat, protein, starch, lactose, fructose, glucose, alcohol, amino acids, oil, sugar, fiber, salt, Brix, caffeine, lysine, ash, gluten, etc. Where is near-infrared spectroscopy analysis used? NIR Analysis used in the industry area of
  • Agriculture
  • Food and Feed
  • Food and Beverages
  • Food and Dairy
  • Malt houses and breweries
  • Milling and Bakery
  • Flour, Grain milling and oils
  • Sugar
  • Feed Ingredients
  • Edible Oils
  • Meats
  • Animal feed
  • Aqua Feed
  • Pet Food and Animal Proteins
  • Dried and Wet Forage
  • Beverage and Biofuels
  • Chemical and Pharma
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Pulp and Paper
  • Petro
  • Oil and Gas
  • Plastics
  • Polymers
  • Textiles
  • Packaging
  • Environmental
  • Forensics
  • Academia
  • Cosmetics
  • Health care